Tuesday, 7 July 2020

What causes gastrointestinal perforation?

Gastrointestinal Perforation, a.k.a., Ruptured Bowel, a.k.a., Discontinuity of the Bowel Wall, is a potentially devastating medical condition where a hole or rupture forms in the wall of the gastrointestinal tract, which includes the large and small intestines; the stomach and the esophagus. 
Symptoms include tenderness to touch and severe constant pain. Increased breathing and heart rate, acute mental confusion, fever and sepsis may also occur.

Causes of the condition:
  1. Ischemia (inadequate blood supply): This can be Bowel Obstruction or Necrosis. Bowel obstruction is where enlargement of the bowel walls lead to the reduced blood supply and Necrosis; which is the death of cells due to lack of blood supply. Both of which can lead to rupture or perforation. This is more common among the elderly, specifically, among those with clotting disorders, coronary disease and a history of smoking.
  2. Infection: 2 main causes are: Appendicitis, where the finger-shaped pouch projecting into the colon on the lower right side of the abdomen becomes inflamed; and Diverticulitis, where the small pouches that form on the side of the intestines become inflamed. It is believed that both these are due to entrapment of fecal matter, causing internal pressure and infection leading to perforation.
  3. Erosive Diseases: These are those that wear out the body structure over a period of time in many ways, like ulcerous disease or invasive tumours. An ulcer directly damages the bowel wall due to infection, overproduction of acid or lack of acid protective mechanism. Tumours can form on the entire wall of the bowel leading to perforation.
  4. Physical: This can be either external or internal trauma. External or mechanical injury can be caused by either blunt or penetrating trauma to abdomen during say, an accident or a fight. Internal are usually medical in nature, often caused by instrumentation, like during an endoscopy. 

This is a life-threatening medical emergency requiring immediate medical care, and early diagnosis and treatment lead to highly improved chances of recovery.

Blog Reviewed By: Dr Patta Radhakrishna
Mail Us: gastrosurgeonchennai@gmail.com

Monday, 27 April 2020

Medical care & Management of Appendicitis

A small-pouch shaped organ on the right side of the abdomen that is connected to the colon is called an appendix. Usually, appendicitis is caused due to the swelling of the appendix, which will be inflamed and pus-filled. A stomach infection, blockage in the lining of the appendix could lead to appendicitis. The infection or the bacteria would multiply quickly, causing inflammation and pus in the appendix. Timely treatment is a must, or else it would rupture and lead to further complications.



An appendectomy is a process of surgically removing the appendix. This is considered to be a common procedure performed under emergencies. It is considered to be an emergency as the infected appendix might rupture or burst, allowing the infectious contents to enter the abdominal cavity. This surgery can help prevent complications.

Abdominal testing, blood test, urine test, and CT or ultrasound would be used to diagnose the issue. Sometimes, doctors would prescribe certain medications that could reduce the infection and pain, but severe conditions cannot be controlled with medications; hence, appendectomy is highly recommended. 


Using keyhole surgery or laparoscopy, doctors would perform an appendectomy. The procedure is less invasive than open surgery and performed under general anesthesia. Tiny incisions would be made in the abdomen into which a special tool called a port would be inserted. Carbon dioxide would be pumped through this port so that the stomach would get inflated and make the organs in the abdomen easier to examine. A laparoscope would be inserted through one of the incisions, and using other tools; the doctor would identify the position and remove the appendix. Sterile fluid will be instilled to remove the remaining infectious materials. The surgical instruments would then be removed so that the carbon dioxide would escape, and then the doctor would close the incisions with sutures or bandages. 

Recovery time 

Based on the severity of the infection, the recovery period would vary for each individual who has undergone an appendectomy. If the appendix has ruptured, then the hospital stay would be longer. Specific steps, when followed, help in faster recovery such as:
  • Avoid driving 
  • Avoid alcohol 
  • Follow a healthy diet plan and drink plenty of fluids 
  • Refrain from lifting heavy objects at least for 10-14 days post-surgery
  • Wash the hands thoroughly after touching the area close to an incision site 
  • Follow the instructions given by the doctor divinely 
  • Check the bandages to make sure there are no infections
  • Avoid wearing tight clothes 
  • Take pain killers and other medications as prescribed by the surgeon
  • Advised to hold a pillow over the tummy while sneezing or coughing to minimize the strain on the incision site

If there are any issues after the surgery, it is suggested to have an immediate follow-up. Follow-up care is a must as it is the central part of the treatment and safety.

Blog Reviewed By: Dr Patta Radhakrishna
Mail Us: gastrosurgeonchennai@gmail.com

Thursday, 6 February 2020

The link between obesity & stomach cancer

Obese would be titled for people whose body mass index is greater than 30. Excess fat and being overweight can be termed as obesity. This excess of body fat can be harmful and cause a lot of health issues and complications as well. 


The most common causes of obesity would be too much intake of food, alcohol, certain medications, lack of sleep, and no physical activity. These could cause certain types of cancer, and women are at higher risk of developing cancers of the endometrium, breast, colon, kidney, and gallbladder.

Obesity & stomach cancer

Stomach cancer is considered to be a malignant ulcer in the lining of the stomach. It is also known as gastric cancer. One of the causes that leads to stomach cancer is the excess of fat or obesity. The chronic inflammation associated with obesity increases the risk of gastric cancer. Obesity can produce more insulin and leptin, which would lead to increased cell proliferation, promoting the growth of cancerous cells. People who are obese are more prone to develop H. pylori or Helicobacter pylori infection, which is considered to be a risk factor for peptic and gastric cancer. And the abdominal fat can be a risk factor as it produces oesophageal reflux, which in turn causes gastric cancer. 

Medical care 

Obesity would become a hindrance to a lot of treatments or treatment protocols. It affects the dosage of chemotherapy. Obesity is just one factor, but it layers on top of all the other factors that would trigger stomach cancer. A healthy lifestyle and diet can be the best way to prevent cancer, plus lowering the risk of obesity and other complications. 

Gastroscopy, CT scan, and upper GI series would be used to diagnose stomach cancer. Gastric surgery can be performed to help treat obesity when other treatments and methods fail. Usually, gastric cancer would require surgery in the form of partial or total gastrectomy or bypass.

 Stomach Cancer

Even though there are various methods and treatments for gastric cancer, it is better to prevent the issue initially. It is always suggested to maintain a proper diet to stay fit and healthy.

Blog Reviewed By: Dr Patta Radhakrishna
Mail Us: gastrosurgeonchennai@gmail.com

Wednesday, 4 December 2019

Signs and symptoms of ulcerative colitis

What is ulcerative colitis?
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a long-standing disease that is also known as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It is a group of diseases that affects your large intestine. It occurs when the colon of your large intestine, rectum, or both gets inflamed.

 Ulcerative Colitis

Usually, it starts from the rectum and leads to upward direction. The inflammation occurs in the colon causes your bowel to move rapidly and empty frequently. The ulcer causes the bleeding and discharge of pus and mucus.

The signs and symptoms may vary, depending on the seriousness of inflammation of infected area such as:   
  • Mouth ulcers
  • Red and swollen skin
  • Irritated red eyes
  • Shortness of breath
  • Irregular heart beat
  • Loss of weight
  • Diarrhea with the discharge of blood, mucus or pus
  • Abdominal pain and cramping   
  • Fatigue
  • High Fever
  • Urgency to defecate

There are five types of ulcerative colitis:
1. Ulcerative proctitis - Inflammation occurs to the rectum of the large intestine, and small amount of bleeding passing in your stool is the only sign of the disease. 
2. Proctosigmoiditis - Inflammation occurs in sigmoid colon and rectum. Signs and symptoms are abdominal cramps, bloody diarrhea, and an inability to move the bowels instead of having urge. 
3. Left-sided colitis. Inflammation starts from rectum and go up to the sigmoid and descending colon causes abdominal cramping, bloody diarrhea, and weight loss.
4. Pancolitis - Often affects the colon entirely and causes intense bloody diarrhea, fatigue and notable weight loss.
5. Acute severe ulcerative colitis - This form of colitis found rarely in patients that infect the entire colon causes profuse diarrhea, severe pain, fever, bleeding and inability to eat.
When to see a doctor
Get in touch with your doctor if you observe a constant change in your bowel habit:
  • Long-standing diarrhea that doesn't cured by the medications
  • Abdominal pain
  • Blood in your stool
  • Long lasting fever 

 Ulcerative Colitis


Till this day, the cause of the ulcerative colitis remains unknown. 
Organizations such as the SIMS hospital can provide resources and support to help you live a full and healthy life with ulcerative colitis.

Blog Reviewed By: Dr Patta Radhakrishna
Mail Us: gastrosurgeonchennai@gmail.com

Thursday, 24 October 2019

What can I expect after Gastric Sleeve Surgery?

Obesity, "the state of being grossy fat or overweight", is extremely prevalent in the developed countries of the West, especially among the young. The developing countries are not very far behind;, particularly in the sprawling metro cities. Lack of exercise and bad diet are among the many reasons attributed to its spread.

Gastric Sleeve Surgery chennai

Sometimes, among the extreme cases, surgical measures have to be adopted. It is in this scenario that Gastric Sleeve Weight Loss Surgery is advised.

What exactly Gastric Sleeve Surgery?

The simplest explanation is: it reduces the physical size of the patient's stomach. Here, surgeons surgically remove part of the stomach and stitch together the remaining portion in a tubular sleeve like a sack, and hence the name "Gastric Sleeve Surgery." It takes two to three days and is permanent.

What can one expect after the surgery?

  • After the surgery, you will be able to drink only clear fluid for 2-3 days and, then move on to mashed food products and protein mixes for a month. You will then be able to take normal diet but in very small quantity.
  • Expect to lose a lot of weight and medical conditions related to weight will improve. How much that will be will vary from person to person..
  • Avoid eating high sugar foods like soda and fruit juice.
  • Tiredness may be present for a month and will soon disappear. 
contact us

Blog Reviewed By: Dr Patta Radhakrishna
Mail Us: gastrosurgeonchennai@gmail.com

Wednesday, 23 October 2019

What To Know About Chronic Pancreatitis?

The pancreas is the most hardworking organ in the human body. It plays a significant role in your digestion process. It makes enzymes that help your digestive process and insulin to keep your blood sugar levels under control. Any inflammation, fibrosis, or scarring of the pancreas will develop a condition called pancreatitis. 

What is pancreatitis?

Pancreatitis is a disease in which the pancreas becomes inflamed or damaged. This is when the digestive enzymes are activated before they are released into the small intestine and begin attacking the pancreas. Pancreatitis can become a chronic problem. Treatment for this condition varies depending on whether your pancreatitis is acute or chronic. 

Acute pancreatitis is a sudden inflammation of your pancreas, which can be very painful. You may have nausea, vomiting, and fever. If acute pancreatitis slowly gets worse,It may lead to chronic pancreatitis.

What is chronic pancreatitis?

Chronic pancreatitis is an irreversible and progressive disorder of the pancreas caused by an inflammation that constantly occurs over the long haul. Chronic pancreatitis can create permanent damage to the pancreas. Scar tissue develops from this long-term inflammation.

What causes chronic pancreatitis?

If you have chronic pancreatitis, the digestive enzymes that would normally travel by tubes inside your pancreas and empty into your upper intestine, become trapped inside your pancreas, this causes pain and scarring. The trapped enzymes slowly destroy your pancreas.

The most common cause of chronic pancreatitis is drinking too much alcohol over many years. 

 Other causes include:
  • An attack of acute pancreatitis that damages your pancreatic ducts
  • A blockage of the main pancreatic duct caused by cancer 
  • Certain autoimmune disorders
  • Cystic fibrosis
  • Hereditary diseases of the pancreas
  • Smoking
  • Unknown cause in some cases 

How to diagnose?

If pancreatitis is suspected, It is best diagnosed with tests that can evaluate the structure of the pancreas via radiography. Your doctor will likely use a combination of blood tests and imaging studies to make a diagnosis. 

Computed tomography is the best imaging modality for diagnosis. Your doctor may recommend a variety of diagnostic tests such as; Transabdominal ultrasound, Endoscopic ultrasound, and Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP).

How is chronic pancreatitis treated?

Day-to-day treatment includes: 
  • Pain medicine
  • Pancreatic enzyme supplements with every meal
  • Insulin, if you develop diabetes
  • Vitamin supplements, if needed
For acute pancreatitis or a flare-up, you may need to stay in the hospital for treatment. Your exact treatment will depend on the cause of your chronic pancreatitis, how severe the symptoms are, and your physical condition. 

Acute treatments may include:
  • Feeding through a tube through the nose into the stomach
  • Diet
  • IV fluids
  • Pain medicines
  • Surgery 

You can control pancreatitis with a healthy lifestyle and medical treatment when necessary. Organizations such as the SIMS hospital can provide resources and support to help you live a full and healthy life with pancreatitis.

However, if any of your symptoms reappear, speak with your doctor as soon as possible.

Blog Reviewed By: Dr Patta Radhakrishna
Mail Us: gastrosurgeonchennai@gmail.com

Wednesday, 9 October 2019

Post-Surgery Care After Hernia Surgery

Hernia repair surgery is commonly performed either through a laparoscope or through traditional open surgery techniques. Modern hernia surgery repair techniques are less invasive. The recovery rates are faster than the conventional methods with the least discomfort, making less recurrence rate. The patient can expect a faster discharge from the hospital.

hernia repair surgery in chennai

The recovery period after hernia surgery:

After hernia repair surgery, the patient is kept in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) for close monitoring. They will remain there until they are stable. The amount of time spent in the PACU depends on the patient's progress and on the type of anesthesia they had received.

Post-Operative Care And Recovery

  • Immediately after surgery: After leaving the post-anesthesia unit, the patient is shifted to the daycare department. The patient is discharged after a few hours.
  • There will be negligible pain at the operated site because of pre-emptive analgesia and TAP block.

First Week Do’s And Don’ts

Following are some of the tips that can help to prevent infection, promote healing, and avoid weight gain.

  • Depending on wound healing, you can take the patient to shower within a day or two.
  • Make sure the patient does not strain abdominal muscles while walking. However, an ideal level of strain can improve circulation.
  • Plan a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and fiber along with a lot of fluids. This keeps constipation at bay. If the patient is straining that results due to inactivity seek immediate doctor's help. Physicians may prescribe laxatives or stool softeners to avoid
  • Depending on the recovery you will need to consult your physician before resuming driving.
  • Some people resume work within a week; however, it allows the patient to take adequate rest. Depending on the type of surgery, a physician can suggest when a patient should resume work.
  • It may take a few weeks for the patients to get back to playing sports. Always remember to seek physician advice before resuming playing any kind of sports.

Tips For A Speedy Recovery

  • Ensure that a relative or family stays with the patient after surgery. This will help the patient as he/she is physically restricted to do many things.
  • Keep a pillow next to the patient so that in case he/she needs to cough, sneeze, or vomit, he/she can press it against the abdomen. This helps to prevent excessive strain on abdominal muscles.
  • Reduce using stairs as it may be physically exhausting to climb up and down.
  • Be aware of all the potential complications post-surgery. This enables you to call your doctor immediately if you notice any.
  • Be consistent in all your follow-ups with your doctor for your safety and the success of your surgery.

Most doctors ask their patients to return in about a week for a follow-up visit. At this time, all stitches will be removed.

Blog Reviewed By: Dr Patta Radhakrishna
Visit Us : thegastrosurgeon.com
Mail Us: gastrosurgeonchennai@gmail.com
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